2016 Vol. 29, No. 2

Content
Content
2016, 29(2): 0-0.
Article
We investigate tunneling electron induced luminescence from isolated single porphyrin molecules that are decoupled by striped-phase self-assembled monolayer of octanethiol from the underneath Au(111) substrate. Intrinsic single-molecule electroluminescence has been realized by such decoupling at both bias polarities. The photon emission intensity acquired from the molecular lobe is found stronger than that from the molecular center. These re-sults provide useful information on the understanding of electroluminescent behavior and mechanism in molecular tunnel junctions.
Raman spectra of liquid nitromethane were measured in single-shock experiments using transient Raman scattering system with high sensitivity. The measurement system was combined with a two-stage light gas gun to interrogate the vibrational mode-dependent behaviors of shock-compressed nitromethane molecules. Up to 12 GPa, all Raman peaks were able to be clearly detected, and showed the shock-induced shifting and broadening, but no signs of chemical changes occurred in the sample. Thus, it is concluded that chemical reactions could not be initiated in singly-shocked nitromethane below 12 GPa.
Pure water has been characterized for nearly a century, by its dissociation into hydronium (H3O)1+ and hydroxide (HO)1- ions. As a chemical equilibrium reaction, the equilibrium constant, known as the ion product or the product of the equilibrium concentration of the two ion species, has been extensively measured by chemists over the liquid water temper-ature and pressure range. The experimental data have been nonlinear least-squares fitted to chemical thermodynamic-based equilibrium equations, which have been accepted as the industrial standard for 35 years. In this study, a new and statistical-physics-based water ion product equation is presented, in which, the ions are the positively charged protons and the negatively charged proton-holes or prohols. Nonlinear least squares fits of our equation to the experimental data in the 0-100 ℃ pure liquid water range, give a factor of two better precision than the 35-year industrial standard.
Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) is a robust technique for interfacial investigation at molecular level. The performance of SFG-VS mostly depends on the spectral resolution of the SFG system. In this research, a simplified function was deduced to calculate the spectral resolution of picosecond SFG system and the lineshape of SFG spectra based on the Guassian shaped functions of IR beam and visible beam. The function indicates that the lineshpe of SFG spectra from nonresonant samples can be calculated by the Guassian widths of both IR beam and visible beam. And the Voigt lineshape of SFG spectra from vibrational resonant samples can be calculated by the Homogeneous broadening (Lorentzian width) and Inhomogeneous broadening (Guassian width) of vibrational modes, as well as the Guassian widths of both IR beam and visible beam. Such functions were also applied to verify the spectral resolution of the polarization-resolved and frequency-resolved picosecond SFG-VS system which was developed by our group recently. It is shown that the linewidths of IR beams that generated from current laser system are about 1.5 cm-1. The calculated spectral resolution of current picosecond IR scanning SFG-VS system is about 4.6 cm-1, which is consist with he spctral resolution shown in the spectra of cholesterol monolayer (3.5-5 cm-1).
There is a growing interest in the study of structures and properties of biomolecules in gas phase. Applications of force fields are highly desirable for the computational efficiency of the gas phase study. To help the selection of force fields, the performances of five repre-sentative force fields for gaseous neutral, protonated, deprotonated and capped amino acids are systematically examined and compared. The tested properties include relative conforma-tional energies, energy differences between cis and trans structures, the number and strength of predicted hydrogen bonds, and the quality of the optimized structures. The results of BHandHLYP/6-311++G(d,p) are used as the references. GROMOS53A6 and ENCADS are found to perform poorly for gaseous biomolecules, while the performance of AMBER99SB, CHARMM27 and OPLSAA/L are comparable when applicable. Considering the general availability of the force field parameters, CHARMM27 is the most recommended, followed by OPLSAA/L, for the study of biomolecules in gas phase.
The dynamics of tripartite entanglement and intramolecular energy for one harmonic-and two anharmonic-vibrational modes in a symmetric trimer molecule is studied for various ini-tial states, where the entanglement is quantified in terms of concurrence and the interacting energy among three modes is calculated to establish a link between entanglement and en-ergy. It is shown that the concurrence and the interacting energy behave dominantly positive correlation for the localized state in the anharmonic-vibrational mode, while they are domi-nantly anti-correlated for the localized state in the harmonic-vibrational mode. The relation between bipartite entanglement and the energy in a subsystem is discussed as well. Those are useful for quantum computing and quantum information in high dimensional states prepared in polyatomic molecules.
H2Ge=Si: and its derivatives (X2Ge=Si:, X=H, Me, F, Cl, Br, Ph, Ar,…) are new species. Its cycloaddition reactions are new area for the study of silylene chemistry. The cycloaddition reaction mechanism of singlet H2Ge=Si: and formaldehyde has been investigated with the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ method. From the potential energy profile, it could be predicted that the reaction has one dominant reaction pathway. The reaction rule is that two reactants firstly form a four-membered Ge-heterocyclic ring silylene through the [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. Because of the 3p unoccupied orbital of Si: atom in the four-membered Ge-heterocyclic ring silylene and the π orbital of formaldehyde forming a π→p donor-acceptor bond, the four-membered Ge-heterocyclic ring silylene further combines with formaldehyde to form an intermediate. Because the Si: atom in the intermediate undergoes sp3 hybridization after transition state, then the intermediate isomerizes to a spiro-Si-heterocyclic ring compound involving Ge via a transition state. The result indicates the laws of cycloaddition reaction between H2Ge=Si: or its derivatives (X2Ge=Si:, X=H, Me, F, Cl, Br, Ph, Ar,…) and asymmetric π-bonded compounds are significant for the synthesis of small-ring involving Si and Ge and spiro-Si-heterocyclic ring compounds involving Ge.
A series of photocatalysts of un-doped, single-doped and co-doped nanometer titanium diox-ide (TiO2) have been successfully prepared by template method using Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, La(NO3)3·6H2O, and tetrabutyl titanate as precursors and glucan as template. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement were em-ployed to characterize the morphology, crystal structure and surface structure of the samples. The photo-absorbance of the obtained catalysts was measured by UV-Vis absorption spec-troscopy, and the photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples under UV and visible light were estimated by measuring the degradation rate of methyl orange in an aqueous solu-tion. The characterizations indicated that the prepared photocatalysts consisted of anatase phase and possessed high surface area of ca. 163-176 m2/g. It was shown that the Fe and La co-doped nano-TiO2 could be activated by visible light and could thus be used as an effective catalyst in photo-oxidation reactions. The synergistic effect of Fe and La co-doping played an important role in improving the photocatalytic activity. In addition, the possibil-ity of cyclic usage of co-doped nano-TiO2 was also confirmed, the photocatalytic activity of codoped nano-TiO2 remained above 89.6% of the fresh sample after being used four times.
The structure, electromagnetic and optical properties of the O-terminated graphene nanorib-bons with armchair edge are studied using first-principles theory. The results show that the O-terminated armchair edge are more stable than the H-terminated ribbons and show metal-lic character. Spin-polarized calculations reveal that the antiferromagnetic state are more stable than the ferromagnetic state. The energy band and density of states analyses show that the O-terminated armchair edge are antiferromagnetic semiconductors. Because of the terminated O atoms, the dielectric function has an evident red shift and the first peak is the strongest with its main contribution derived from the highest valence band. The peaks of the dielectric function, re ection, absorption, energy loss are related to the transition of electrons. Our results suggest that the O-terminated graphene nanoribbons have potential applications in nanoelectronics, opto-electric devices.
The ordering configurations of a fluid of anisotropic ellipsoids under the confinement of two apposing impenetrable walls are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The excess adsorption of the fluid on the walls with respect to the aspect ratio has a maximum at the critical aspect ratio of 2.9 in high-density ellipsoid fluids, indicating an orientational ordering in the adjacent region of the walls, which is confirmed by probing into the density configurations and the orientational order parameter in the adjacent region of the walls for varying aspect ratios. In addition, the orientational order parameter in the bulk fluid at the same density is calculated, and it indicates an isotropic state as the bulk density is still below the bulk isotropic-to-nematic transition. Therefore, it can be concluded that the anisotropic ordering near the walls in the ellipsoid fluid that exhibits isotropic in the bulk is induced by the confinement effect of the walls.
An investigation of electronic property and high pressure phase stability of SmN has been conducted using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. The electronic properties of SmN show a striking feature of a half metal, the majority-spin electrons are metallic and the minority-spin electrons are semiconducting. It was found that SmN undergoes a pressure-induced phase transition from NaCl-type (B1) to CsCl-type structure (B2) at 117 GPa. The elastic constants of SmN satisfy Born conditions at ambient pressure, indicating that B1 phase of SmN is mechanically stable at 0 GPa. The result of phonon spectra shows that B1 structure is dynamically stable at ambient pressure, which agrees with the conclusion derived from the elastic constants.
We have investigated the electron transport properties of a N24B24 molecule coupled to two metallic contacts with a combination of GW approximation and the non-equilibrium Green's-function technique. The calculations indicate that the four and three resonant tunneling peaks are seen for the density of states (DOS) curves in the cases of single and multiple atomic contacts, respectively. The off state and negative di erential resistance (NDR) effect are observed in the I-V characteristics of the N24B24 molecule. The NDR behavior is also observed in voltages of about ∓4.5, ∓4, ∓4.6, and ∓4.3 V for one, four, six, and eight atomic contacts. Also, the I-V characteristics of N24B24 are in off state at low voltages that is independent of the contact types. The current curves against the gate voltage depend on contact types and indicate that N24B24 molecule behaves as a semiconductor.
Boron-doped zinc oxide transparent (BZO) films were prepared by sol-gel method. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the crystallization behavior and properties was systematically investigated. XRD patterns revealed that the BZO films had wurtzite structure with a preferential growth orientation along the c-axis. With the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the particle size and surface roughness of the BZO films increased, suggesting that pyrolysis temperature is the critical factor for determining the crystallization behavior of the BZO films. Moreover, the carrier concentration and the carrier mobility increased with increasing the pyrolysis temperature, and the mean transmittance for every film is over 90% in the visible range.
Graphite-like C3N4 (g-C3N4) is ané cient visible-light-driven photocatalyst which is com-monly used in pollutant degradation. The photoreactivity of g-C3N4 depends on the prepa-ration conditions to a large extent. In this work, we linked the preparation conditions of g-C3N4 to its stability and photocatalytic activity through dye photodegradation experi-ments and sensitivity mathematical analyses. The sensitivity mathematical analyses show that the effect of calcination temperature is more significant than calcination time on the photoreactivity of g-C3N4. The photocatalytic activity of optimized g-C3N4 in rhodamine B (RhB) degradation under visible light was 100 times higher than that of non-optimized one. The enhanced performance can be attributed to the increased specific surface area of g-C3N4 and the increased migration velocity of photogenerated electron-hole pairs on the surface. This work deepens the understanding of the relation between preparation conditions and the charateristics of g-C3N4, and provides an extremely simple method for significantly improving the photoreactivity of g-C3N4.
The nanopowders of Mg-Al carbonate layered double hydroxides (MgAl-LDH) were prepared via coprecipitation process. ZnO nanoparticles were homogeneously coated on the ceramic MgAl-LDH surface. After calcination at 500 ℃ for 4 h, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure and morphology, respectively. It was demonstrated that ZnO nanoparticles were successfully prepared on ceramic MgAl-LDH support. The obtained nano-ZnO photocatalyst showed a high pho-tocatalytic degradation of malachite green. The enhanced photocatalytic property can be attributed to both high photocatalytic activity of ZnO and good adsorption behavior of ceramic MgAl-LDH, in which the aky structure of MgAl-LDH plays an important role.
Magnetic nanoparticles of NiFe2O4-Pd composites have been synthesized using a simple, low cost, sol-gel auto-combustion method. As-prepared samples were sintered at 800 ℃ for 6 h in order to develop the crystalline phase. X-ray diffraction confirmed the spinel structure of the ferrite samples. Structural morphology and size of the nanoparticles were evaluated using a field emission scanning electron microscope. Magnetic hysteresis loops were obtained at 300 and 100 K using a physical properties measurement system. The value of saturation magnetization was observed to decrease at the temperatures with the increase of Pd contents up to 5% but then a sudden rise in saturation magnetization was observed for the addition of 10% Pd in NiFe2O4.
A series of heterogemini imidazolium surfactants with two-methylene spacer groups ([Cm-2-Cnim]Br2, m, n=8, 10, 12, 14, 16; mn) have been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopy. The effects of various reaction parameters, including stoichiometry, reaction temperature and time, were investigated. In addition, the surface activity study about heterogemini imidazolium surfactants was carried out and the influences of dissymmetric degree on the surface properties were also discussed.
A non-precious metal catalyst MnHMTA/C to oxygen reduction reaction was prepared by py-rolyzing a precursor from manganese chloride, hexamethylenetetramine and acetylene black in nitrogen gas atmosphere. The effect of heat treatment temperature and owing of nitro-gen gas were investigated. A catalyst with the highest activity can be obtained at 700 ℃. Mn(II) ion was changed to MnO in heat treatment, which improved the catalytic activity of the catalyst. Hexamethylenetetramine takes part in the formation of active site of the cata-lyst as its decomposed gases. The owing of protective gas takes the decomposed gases out of the tube furnace and brings negative effect on the catalytic activity of the MnHMTA/C catalyst.
Effects of meta-substituent of 3,4'/4,3'/3,3'-substituted benzylideneanilines (XBAYs) on the electrochemical reduction potentials (E(Red)) were investigated, in which 49 samples of target compounds were synthesized, and their reduction potentials were measured by cyclic voltammetry. The substituent effects on the E(Red) of target compounds were analyzed and an optimality equation with four parameters (Hammett constant σ of X, Hammett constant σ of Y, excited-state substituent constant σCCex of X, and the substituent specific cross-interaction effect ΔσCCex2 between X and Y) was obtained. The results show that the factors affecting the E(Red) of 3,4'/4,3'/3,3'-substituted XBAYs are different from those of 4,4'-substituted XBAYs. For 3,4'/4,3'/3,3'-substituted XBAYs, σ(X) and σ(Y) must be employed, and the contribution of ΔσCCex2 is important and not negligible. Compared with 4,4'-substituted XBAYs, X group contributes less to 3,4'/4,3'/3,3'-substituted XBAYs, while Y group contributes more to them. Additionally, it was observed that either para-substituted XBAYs or meta-substituted XBAYs, the substituent effects of X are larger than those of Y on the E(Red) of substituted XBAYs.
The effect of realistic topology configuration of intercellular connections on the response ability in coupled cell system is numerically investigated by using the Hindmarsh-Rose model. For the proper coupling intensity, we set the control parameter to be near the critical value, and the external stimulus is introduced to the first cell in coupled system. It is found that, on one hand, when the cells are coupled with some proper topological structures, the external stimulus could transmit through the system, and shows better response ability and higher sensitivity. On the other hand, the in uence of topological configuration on the synchronous ability and selection effect of neural system are also discussed. Our results display that the topology of coupled system may play an important role in the process of signal propagation, which could help us to understand the coordinated performance of cells in tissue.
Hydroxyl-epoxy phosphate (HEP) as a reactive corrosion inhibitor was innovatively synthesized by the reaction of bisphenol A epoxy resin with phosphoric acid. HEP was mixed with hydroxyl acrylate resin, and crosslinked with waterborne isocyanate curing agent, which was used to form waterborne HEP/acrylic polyurethane composite (HEP-APU) coatings on Q235 steel surfaces. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization curves were applied to analyze the corrosion behavior of the HEP-APU coatings in 3.5wt% NaCl solutions. The results indicated that the HEP-APU coatings show a superior passivation property and efficient corrosion protection of Q235 steel. The waterborne acrylic polyurethane coating containing 0.5wt% HEP exhibited the best corrosion performance among all the coating specimens. The improved flash-rust resistance can be attributed to the introduction of the phosphate group which could form phosphate film on the steel substrate.
Chinese abstract
Chinese Abstracts
2016, 29(2): 279-280.