2018 Vol. 31, No. 6

Content
Content
2018, 31(6): 734-734.
Article
The NH(a1Δ)+CO(X1Σ+) product channel for the photodissociation of isocyanic acid (HNCO) on the first excited singlet state S1 has been investigated by means of time-sliced ion velocity map imaging technique at photolysis wavelengths around 201 nm. The CO product was detected through (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). Images were obtained for CO products formed in the ground and vibrational excited state (v=0 and v=1). The energy distributions and product angular distributions were obtained from the CO velocity imaging. The correlated NH(a1Δ) rovibrational state distributions were determined. The vibrational branching ratio of 1NH (v=1/v=0) increases as the rotational state of CO(v=0) increases initially and decreases afterwards, which indicates a special state-tostate correlation between the 1NH and CO products. About half of the available energy was partitioned into the translational degree of freedom. The negative anisotropy parameter indicates that it is a vertical direct dissociation process.
The kinetic processes of Xe(6p[1/2]0, 6p[3/2]2, and 6p[5/2]2) atoms under the focused condition were investigated. The atomic density of the laser prepared state significantly increases. Therefore, the probability of the energy-pooling between two high-lying atoms increases. There are three major types of the energy-pooling collisions. The first type is the energy-pooling ionization. Once the excitation laser is focused, the obvious ionization can be observed from the side window whenever the laser prepared state is 6p[1/2]0, 6p[3/2]2, or 6p[5/2]2 state. Ionization of Xe is attributed to the energy-pooling ionization or a Xe? atom reabsorbing another excitation photon. The second type is energy-pooling with big energy difference. When the 6p[1/2]0 state is the laser prepared state, the energy-pooling collision between two 6p[1/2]0 atoms can produce one 5d[3/2]1 atom and one 6s'[1/2]0 atom. The third type is energy-pooling with small energy difference. The intensities of fluorescence lines are much stronger that five secondary 6p states act as the upper states, and the rising edges of these fluorescence lines are much steeper. The primary mechanism of generating the secondary 6p atoms is energy-pooling collision instead of collision relaxation. Based on the collision probability, the rate of energy-pooling between two 6p[1/2]0 atoms is deduced (6.39x108s-1). In addition, the 6s atoms also increase under the focused condition. Therefore, all the fluorescence lines are serious trailing by radiation trapping.
The ultrafast photoisomerization and excited-state dynamics of trans-4-methoxyazobenzene (trans-4-MAB) in solutions were investigated by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations. After being excited to the S2 state, the two-dimensional transient absorptions spectra show that cis-4-MAB is produced and witnessed by the permanent positive absorption in 400-480 nm. Three decay components are determined to be 0.11, 1.4 and 2.9 ps in ethanol, and 0.16, 1.5 and 7.5 ps in ethylene glycol, respectively. The fast component is assigned to the internal conversion from the S2 to S1 state. The other relaxation pathways are correlated with the decay of the S1 state via internal conversion and isomerization, and the vibrational cooling of the hot S0 state of the cis-isomer. Comparing of the dynamics in different solvents, it is demonstrated that the photoisomerization pathway undergoes the inversion mechanism rather than the rotation mechanism.
Motivated by the recent advances of transition-metal-nitrogen-carbon (TM-N-C) materials in catalysis, we investigate the electronic structure and transport properties of FeN3-embedded armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons (FeN3@AGNRs, FeN3@ZGNRs) with different widths. The first-principles results indicate that the FeN3 induces significant changes on the band structures of both ZGNRs and AGNRs, making the resultant systems quite different from the pristine ones and own room-temperature stable ferromagnetic (FM) ground states. While only FeN3@AGNRs possess a significant spin-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) and a striking current polarization (nearly 100%) behaviors, due to that FeN3 introduces two isolated spin-down states, which contribute current with different performances when they couple with different frontier orbits. It is suggested that by embedding FeN3 complexes, AGNRs can be used to build spin devices in spintronics.
The formation of the aromatic ring during the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remains controversial and the experimental evidence is still lacking. Moreover, the formation mechanism of benzene from acetylene in the gas phase has also puzzled organic chemists for decades. Here, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations provide compelling evidence for an unexpected competitive reaction pathway in which the aromatic ring is formed through successive additions of vinylidene. Moreover, no collisions cause bond dissociation of the acetylene molecule during the formation of benzene in this work. This study reveals the key role for the vinylidene carbene and determines the lifetime of vinylidene.
We present atomic-resolution images of TiSe2, MoTe2 and TaS2 single crystals in liquid condition using our home-built scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). By facilely cleaving of single crystals in liquid, we were able to keep the fresh surface not oxidized within a few hours. Using the high-stable home-built STM, we have obtained atomic resolution images of TiSe2 accompanied with the single atom defects as well as the triangle defects in solution for the first time. Besides, the superstructure of MoTe2 and hexagonal chargedensity wave domain structure in nearly commensurate phase of TaS2 were also obtained at room temperature (295 K). Our results provide a more efficient method in investigating the lively surface of transition metal dichalcogenides. Besides, the high stable liquid-phase STM will support the further investigations in liquid-phase catalysis or electrochemistry.
Photo-induced electron transfer versus molecular structure of acceptors is investigated using ultrafast time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy. Typical laser dyes Rhodamine 101 (Rh101) and Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in electron donor solvent—aniline are adopted as the objects. The forward electron transfer time constant from aniline to the excited singlet state of two Rhodamine dyes and subsequent back electron transfer from two dyes to aniline are measured. The experimental results denote that Rh6G presents faster electron transfer rates with aniline in both forward electron transfer and back electron transfer processes. With chemical calculation and qualitative analysis, it is found that the flexible molecular geometry of Rh6G leads to stronger electron coupling with donor solvent and further gives rise to larger electron transfer rates.
The hydrogen peroxide oxidation reaction (HPOOR) on Au(111) electrode in alkaline solutions with pH values ranging from 10 to 13 was examined systematically. HPOOR activityincreased and the slope of the i-E curve decreased with increasing pH. HO2- is suggested to be the main reactive intermediate for HPOOR in alkaline media. The fast kinetics for HPOOR in alkaline solution is facilitated by the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged electrode and the reactive anions (i.e., HO2- and HO-), which increases the concentration of these reactants and the thermodynamic driving force for HO2- oxidation at the reaction plane.
Coil-to-globule transitions are fundamental problems existing in polymer science for several decades;however, some features are still unclear, such as the effect of chain monomer interaction. Herein, we use Monte Carlo simulation to study the coil-to-globule transition of simple compact polymer chains. We first consider the finite-size effects for a given monomer interaction, where the short chain exhibits a one-step collapse while long chains demonstrate a two-step collapse, indicated by the specific heat. More interestingly, with the decrease of chain monomer interaction, the critical temperatures marked by the peaks of heat capacity shift to low values. A closer examination from the energy, mean-squared radius of gyration and shape factor also suggests the lower temperature of coil-to-globule transition.
Two narrowly-distributed poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) samples were prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with a novel dansyl functionalized initiator. The other end of the PNIPAM was functionalized by dabcyl group via click reaction. From the static fluorescence measurements, the fluorescence intensity of dansyl group and energy transfer efficiency between dansyl and dabcyl groups increased when the temperature increased from 36 °C to 45 °C, indicating that the microenvironment surrounding dansyl became hydrophobic and the distance between dansyl and dabcyl decreased. The kinetics of the conformational change of the dye-labeled PNIPAM was studied by a home-made laser-induced temperature jump device with fluorescent measurement. Our results revealed that the characteristic transition time was 3.8 and 5.8 ms for PNIPAM with degrees of polymerization of 85 and 142, respectively, indicating that the characteristic transition time was related to the chain length. Besides, characteristic transition time for the change of the energy transfer efficiency was 2.9 ms for PNIPAM with the degree of polymerization of 85, suggesting that the energy transfer efficiency change was faster than the fluorescence intensity change of dansyl group.
A rod-like NiCo2O4 modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and used for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. The NiCo2O4 was prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction and subsequently treated in a commercial microwave oven to eliminate the residual water introduced during the hydrothermal procedure. Structural analysis showed that there was no significant structural alteration before and after microwave treatment. The elimination of water residuals was confirmed by the stoichiometric ratio change by using element analysis. The microwave treated NiCo2O4 (M-NiCo2O4) showed excellent performance as a glucose sensor (sensitivity 431.29 μA·mmol/L-1·cm-2). The sensing performance decreases dramatically by soaking the M-NiCo2O4 in water. This result indicates that the introduction of residual water during hydrothermal process strongly affects the electrochemical performance and microwave pre-treatment is crucial for better sensory performance.
Electrodeposition of active catalysts on electrodes appears as a convenient approach to prepare non-noble-metal based electrocatalysts with defined micro- and nano-structures. Herein we report a new strategy of fabricating a 3-D hierarchical CuO nanocrystal array (CuO NCA) on Cu foam through a two-step sacrifice-template method. This CuO NCA possesses high conductivity, great stability, and impressive catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolytes. The CuO NCA can achieve a high current density of 100 mA/cm2 at a relatively low overpotential of 400 mV for OER, which shows a better performance than other Cu-based OER catalysts and IrO2. The high activity of CuO NCA is well retained during a 10-h OER test at a high current density around 270 mA/cm2, which is about 10 times higher than the current density achieved by IrO2 (around 25 mA/cm2) with the same applied overpotential. According to our best knowledge, CuO NCA is currently the most efficient and stable Cu-based electrocatalyst for water oxidation in alkaline electrolytes.
Hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films were deposited on quartz substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering with power from 160 W to 240 W. The optical and microstructural properties of samples before and after annealing were characterized by XRD, XPS, UV-VISNIR spectrophotometer and ellipsometer. The results show optical transmittances with low absorption in wavelength range above λ=200 nm for all samples. The appropriate annealing can transfer the amorphous state of as-deposited films to the crystal film, contribute to the growth of nanocrystalline and compressive stress, optimize the stoichiometry of the film and systematically improve film density and the refractive index. In consideration of the stability of proper refractive index (>2) and high optical transmittance in UV band, HfO2 films deposited approximately at 220 W can be used in UV anti-reflection system.
Determining the number of chemical species is the first step in analyses of a chemical or biological system. A novel method is proposed to address this issue by taking advantage of frequency differences between chemical information and noise. Two interlaced submatrices were obtained by downsampling an original data spectra matrix in an interlacing manner. The two interlaced submatrices contained similar chemical information but different noise levels. The number of relevant chemical species was determined through pairwise comparisons of principal components obtained by principal component analysis of the two interlaced submatrices. The proposed method, referred to as SRISM, uses two self-referencing interlaced submatrices to make the determination. SRISM was able to selectively distinguish relevant chemical species from various types of interference factors such as signal overlapping, minor components and noise in simulated datasets. Its performance was further validated using experimental datasets that contained high-levels of instrument aberrations, signal overlapping and collinearity. SRISM was also applied to infrared spectral data obtained from atmospheric monitoring. It has great potential for overcoming various types of interference factor. This method is mathematically rigorous, computationally efficient, and readily automated.
The electrochemical property of electrode materials greatly depends on their morphologies. This report introduces a novel and facile synthesis method for polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes from one-step synergistic polymerization of aniline and acrylic acid in an aqueous solution induced by the addition of ammonium persulfate (APS). The molar ratio of aniline to AA (X{ani/AA}) is found to have great in fluence on the morphology of the produced PANI. Hollow PANI nanotubes with an average inner diameter of 80 nm and outer diameter of 180 nm can be mainly produced when X{ani/AA} is not higher than 1. The electrochemical properties of the prepared PANI nanotubes have been investigated using a three-electrode system. The specific capacitance of PANI nanotubes can reach 436 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g in 1 mol/L H2SO4 solution. Furthermore, the specific capacitance of the PANI nanotube maintains 89.2% after 500 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 0.5 A/g, indicating a good cycling stability.
α-Fe2O3 thin films have been synthesized and used as photoanodes for photo-electrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. Molybdate was introduced to mediate hematite thin films via two synthesis routes (namely in situin situ mediation and ex situ modification). Through the in situ mediation process, the morphology and film thickness could be changed significantly due to the addition of MoO42-, while for the ex situ modification, the PEC performance of the hematite has been greatly improved without changing the nanorod morphology. Various characterizations such as UV-Vis absorption, transmission electronic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, Mott-Schottky, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were conducted and the PEC performances were investigated.
This work developed a one-step process for renewable p-xylene production by co-catalytic fast pyrolysis (co-CFP) of cellulose and methanol over the different metal oxides modified ZSM5 catalysts. It has been proven that La2O3-modified ZSM5(80) catalyst was an effective one for the production of biobased p-xylene. The selectivity and yield of p-xylene strongly depended on the acidity of the catalysts, reaction temperature, and methanol content. The highest p-xylene yield of 14.5 C-mol% with a p-xylene/xylenes ratio of 86.8% was obtained by the co-CFP of cellulose with 33wt% methanol over 20%La2O3-ZSM5(80) catalyst. The deactivation of the catalysts during the catalytic pyrolysis process was investigated in detail.The reaction pathway for the formation of p-xylene from cellulose was proposed based on the analysis of products and the characterization of catalysts.
Fluorogens with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics have recently been widely applied for studying biological events, and fluorogens with “smart” properties are especially desirable. Herein, we rationally designed and synthesized a biotinylated and reduction-activatable probe (Cys(StBu)-Lys(biotin)-Lys(TPE)-CBT (1)) with AIE properties for cancer-targeted imaging. The biotinylated probe 1 can be actively uptaken by the biotin receptor-overexpressing cancer cells, and then “smartly” self-assemble into nanoparticles inside cells and turn the fluorescence “On”. Employing this “smart” strategy, we successfully applied probe 1 for cancer-targeted imaging. We envision that this biotinylated intelligent probe 1 might be further developed for cancer-targeted imaging in routine clinical studies in the near future.
Chinese abstract
Chinese Abstracts
2018, 31(6): 857-857.