2017 Vol. 30, No. 2

Content
Contents
2017, 30(2): 0-0.
Chinese abstract
Chinese Abstracts
2017, 30(2): I-Ⅱ.
Article
We report on the photodissociation dynamics of CO2+ via its Ã2Πu,1/2 state using the scheme of [1+1] photon excitation that is intermediated by the mode-selected Ã2Πu,1/2( u1,u2,0) vibronic states. Photodissociation fragment exciation spectrum and images of photofragment CO+ have been measured to obtain reaction dynamics parameters such as the available energy and the average translational energy. Combining with the potential energy functions of CO2+, the dissociation mechanism of CO2+ is discussed. The conformational variation of CO2+ from linear to bent on the photodissociation dynamics of CO2+ is verified.
Potential energies of LiS(2Π), LiS-(1Σ+) and LiS+(3Σ-) are calculated by using the multireference configuration interaction method including Davidson correction and the augmented correlation-consistent basis sets aug-cc-PV(X+d)Z (X=T, Q). Such obtained potential energies are subsequently extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Both the core-valence correction and the relativistic effect are also considered. The analytical potential energy functions are then obtained by fitting such accurate energies utilizing a least-squares fitting procedure. By using such analytical potential energy functions, we obtain the accurate spectroscopic parameters, complete set of vibrational levels and classical turning points. The present results are compared well with the experimental and other theoretical work.
The origin of the Rayleigh scattering ring effect has been experimentally examined on a quantum dot/metal film system, in which CdTe quantum dots embedded in PVP are spin-coated on a thin Au film. On the basis of the angle-dependent, optical measurements under different excitation schemes (i.e., wavelength and polarization), we demonstrate that sur-face plasmon assisted directional radiation is responsible for such an effect. Moreover, an interesting phase-shift behavior is addressed.
A multiphysics model for a production scale planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack is important for the SOFC technology, but usually requires an unpractical amount of computing resource. The major cause for the huge computing resource requirement is identified as the need to solve the cathode O2 transport and the associated electrochemistry. To overcome the technical obstacle, an analytical model for solving the O2 transport and its coupling with the electrochemistry is derived. The analytical model is used to greatly reduce the numerical mesh complexity of a multiphysics model. Numerical test shows that the analytical approximation is highly accurate and stable. A multiphysics numerical modeling tool taking advantage of the analytical solution is then developed through Fluent®. The numerical efficiency and stability of this modeling tool are further demonstrated by simulating a 30-cell stack with a production scale cell size. Detailed information about the stack performance is revealed and brie y discussed. The multiphysics modeling tool can be used to guide the stack design and select the operating parameters.
The dynamics of tracers in crowded matrix is of interest in various areas of physics, such as the diffusion of proteins in living cells. By using two-dimensional (2D) Langevin dynamics simulations, we investigate the diffusive properties of a tracer of a diameter in crowded environments caused by randomly distributed crowders of a diameter. Results show that the emergence of subdiffusion of a tracer at intermediate time scales depends on the size ratio of the tracer to crowders δ. If δ falls between a lower critical size ratio and a upper one, the anomalous diffusion occurs purely due to the molecular crowding. Further analysis indicates that the physical origin of subdiffusion is the "cage effect". Moreover, the subdiffusion exponent α decreases with the increasing medium viscosity and the degree of crowding, and gets a minimum αmin=0.75 at δ=1. At long time scales, normal diffusion of a tracer is recovered. For δ≤1, the relative mobility of tracers is independent of the degree of crowding. Meanwhile, it is sensitive to the degree of crowding for δ>1. Our results are helpful in deepening the understanding of the diffusive properties of biomacromolecules that lie within crowded intracellular environments, such as proteins, DNA and ribosomes.
Novel TiO2/BiVO4 microfiber heterojunctions were constructed using cotton as biomorphic templates. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photocatalytic experiment. The morphology of the as-synthesized TiO2/BiVO4 composites was consisted of a large quantity of microfiber structures with diameter from 2.5 μm to 5 μm, and the surface of samples became more coarse and compact with the increase of weight ratio of TiO2. The TiO2/BiVO4 samples with proper content (10.00wt%) showed the highest pho-tocatalytic degradation activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation among all the samples under visible light, and 88.58%MB could be degraded within 150 min. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the formation of n-n heterojunction at the contact interface of TiO2 and BiVO4, which not only narrowed the band gap of BiVO4 for extending the absorption range of visible light, but also promoted the transfer of charge carriers across interface. A possible photodegradation mechanism of MB in the presence of TiO2/BiVO4 microfibrous photocatalyst was proposed.
We present our investigation on the spin relaxation of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films on Au(111) (CoPc/Au(111)) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin relaxation time derived from the linewidth of spin-flip inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is quantitatively analyzed according to the Korringa-like formula. We find that although this regime of the spin relaxation time calculation by just considering the exchange interaction between itinerant conduction electrons and localized d-shells (s-d exchange interaction) can successfully reproduce the experimental value of the adsorbed magnetic atom, it fails in our case of CoPc/Au(111). Instead, we can obtain the relaxation time that is in good agreement with the experimental result by considering the fact that the π electrons in CoPc molecules are spin polarized, where the spin polarized π electrons extended at the Pc macrocycle may also scatter the conduction electrons in addition to the localized d spins. Our analyses indicate that the scattering by the π electrons provides an efficient spin relaxation channel in addition to the s-d interaction and thus leads to much short relaxation time in such a kind of molecular system on a metal substrate.
A multifunctional Cu2O/Ag micro-nanocomposite, which has the characteristics of high catalytic activities under the visible light and high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity, was fabricated via a facile method and employed for the in situ SERS monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation reaction of crystal violet. Through the variation of the AgNO3 concentration, Ag content on the Cu2O template can be controllably tuned, which has great influence on the SERS effect. The results indicate that Ag nanoparticles form on the Cu2O nanoframes to obtain the Cu2O/Ag nanocomposite, which can act as an excellent bifunctional platform for in situ monitoring of photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutions by SERS.
Shape resonances of electron-molecule system formed in the low-energy electron attachment to four low-lying conformers of serine (serine 1, serine 2, serine 3, and serine 4) in gas phase are investigated using the quantum scattering method with the non-empirical model potentials in single-center expansion. In the attachment energy range of 0-10 eV, three shape resonances for serine 1, serine 2, and serine 4 and four shape resonances for serine 3 are predicted. The one-dimensional potential energy curves of the temporary negative ions of electron-serine are calculated to explore the correlations between the shape resonance and the bond cleavage. The bond-cleavage selectivity of the different resonant states for a certain conformer is demonstrated, and the recent experimental results about the dissociative electron attachment to serine are interpreted on the basis of present calculations.
We theoretically investigate the evolutions of two-dimensional, third-order, nonlinear pho-ton echo rephasing spectra with population time by using an exact numerical path integral method. It is shown that for the same system, the coherence time and relaxation time of excitonic states are short, however, if the couplings of electronic and intra-pigment vibra-tional modes are considered, the coherence time and relaxation time of this vibronic states are greatly extended. It means that the couplings between electronic and vibrational modes play important roles in keeping long-lived coherence in light-harvesting complexes. Particularly, by using the method we can fix the transition path of the energy transfer in bio-molecular systems.
We studied the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu surface and its layer dependence by directly growing monolayer graphene with different multilayer structures coexisted, di-minishing the influence induced by residue and transfer technology. It is found that the Cu surface coated with the monolayer graphene demonstrate tremendous difference in oxidation pattern and oxidation rate, compared to that coated with the bilayer graphene, which is considered to be originated from the strain-induced linear oxidation channel in monolayer graphene and the intersection of easily-oxidized directions in each layer of bilayer graphene, respectively. We reveal that the defects on the graphene basal plane but not the boundaries are the main oxidation channel for Cu surface under graphene protection. Our finding indi-cates that compared to putting forth efforts to improve the quality of monolayer graphene by reducing defects, depositing multilayer graphene directly on metal is a simple and effective way to enhance the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated metals.
Organic semiconducting/ferroelectric blend films attracted much attention due to their elec-trical bistability and rectification properties and thereof the potential in resistive memory devices. Blend films were usually deposited from solution, during which phase separation oc-curred, resulting in discrete semiconducting phase whose electrical property was modulated by surrounding ferroelectric phase. However, phase separation resulted in rough surface and thus large leakage current. To further improve electrical properties of such blend films, poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) was introduced as additive into P3HT/P(VDF-TrFE) semiconducting/ferroelectric blend films in this work. It indicated that small amount of PMMA addition could effectively enhance the electrical stability to both large electrical stress and electrical fatigue and further improve retention performance. Overmuch PMMA addition tended to result in the loss of resistive switching property. A model on the con-figuration of three components was also put forward to well understand our experimental observations.
Degradation of cellulose to chemicals is one of major routes for biomass conversion. Here, a new simple and two-step method has been developed to convert cellulose in its homogeneously alkaline solution to organic acids under atmospheric pressure at mild temperature. At first, cellulose was degraded to small molecular intermediates at 110 ℃ for 3 h under atmospheric pressure, and then it was oxidized with H2O2 at 50 ℃ for 4 h. Under the optimal condition, 73.5% conversion of cellulose could be achieved, and the yield of organic acids was 32.8% (formic acid), 11.6% (lactic acid), and 2.3% (oxalic acid), respectively. It is noteworthy that the new strategy reduces energy consumption in the process of reaction, unlike the hydrothermal reaction under high temperature and high pressure.
Herein, we report self-assembly of tadpole-like single chain polymeric nanoparticles (TPPs) and the ultrasonic response of the resultant superparticles. The TPPs are with an intramolecularly crosslinked poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl pent-4-ynoate)-r-poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PMAEP-r-PHEMA) chain as the "head" and a poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA) linear chain as the "tail", and are pre-pared simply and efficiently by Glaser-coupling of the pendant alkynes in the PMAEP-r-PHEMA block in the common solvent methanol. The formation of the TPPs was confirmed by gel permeation chromatograph, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, static dynamic scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. In aqueous solution, the amphiphilic TPPs could self-assemble into regular superparticles, driven by ag-gregation of the hydrophobic "heads". Since in the structure there is no chain entanglement and the embedding of PDMAEMA chains disturb close-packing of the "heads", the superpar-ticles are responsive to a low-energy ultrasonic vibration, as evidenced by greatly enhanced release of the functional molecules from the superparticles by treatment of a low-energy ultrasound. Therefore, the superparticles should be very promising in the use as the drug carriers that can be manipulated from a long distance, considering that ultrasonic energy can be focused at a small area in a relatively long distance from the ultrasound-radiating source.
We report a simple preparation method of a renewable superhydrophobic surface by ther-mally induced phase separation (TIPS) and mechanical peeling. Porous polyvinylidene fluo-ride (PVDF) membranes with hierarchical structures were prepared by a TIPS process under different cooling conditions, which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and mer-cury intrusion porosimetry. After peeling off the top layer, rough structures with hundreds of nanometers to several microns were obtained. A digital microscopy determines that the surface roughness of peeled PVDF membranes is much higher than that of the original PVDF membrane, which is important to obtain the superhydrophobicity. Water contact angle and sliding angle measurements demonstrate that the peeled membrane surfaces display super-hydrophobicity with a high contact angle (152°) and a low sliding angle (7.2°). Moreover, the superhydrophobicity can be easily recovered for many times by a simple mechanical peel-ing, identical to the original superhydrophobicity. This simple preparation method is low cost, and suitable for large-scale industrialization, which may offer more opportunities for practical applications.
Two novel rhodamine-based fluorescence enhanced molecular probes (RA1 and RA2) were synthesized, which were both designed as comparative fluoroionophore and chromophore for the optical detection of Hg2+. The recognizing behaviors were investigated both experimentally and computationally. They exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity for Hg2+ over other commonly coexistent metal ions in CH3CN/H2O (1:1, V/V) solution. Test shows that hydroxy benzene of rich electron was beneficial to the chelate of Hg2+ with sensors. The detection limit was measured to be at least 0.14 μmol/L. After addition of Hg2+, the color changed from colourless to pink, which was easily detected by the naked eye in both solution and hydrogel sensor.
Chitosan (CS) is expected to be an ideal gene carrier for its high biosafety. In this work, CS with low molecular weight were prepared through the γ-ray radiation on the acetic acid solution of CS. The CS chains were scissioned under the γ-ray radiation, and the molecular weight (MW) of CS decreased with the absorbed dose. When the absorbed dose was above 30 kGy, the molecular weight of CS decreased about an order of magnitude. The γ-ray-radiation-scissioned CS can e ectively bind with plasmid (pEGFP) through complex coacervation method, forming pEGFP/ γ-ray-radiation-scissioned CS complex particles with a size of 200-300 nm. The complex particles have good stability and little cytotoxicity. The in uitro gene transfection efficiencies of the pEGFP/ γ-ray-radiation-scissioned CS complex particles were investigated by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The results showed that the gene vectors using γ-ray-radiation-scissioned CS as the carrier will possess better gene transfection efficiency than those using natural high-MW CS as the carrier. The higher the absorbed dose, the smaller the MW of CS and the better transfection efficiency of the corresponding gene vector. This work provides a green and simple method on the preparation of CS-based gene vectors with high efficiency and biosafety.
Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most efficient anticancer drugs for the treatment of cancers through β-tubulin-binding. Our previous work indicated that a PTX-derivative hydroge-lator Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(paclitaxel)-Tyr(H2PO3)-OH (1)could promote neuron branching but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Using tubulin assembly-disassembly assay, in this work, we found that compound 1 obviously delayed more microtubule aggregation than PTX did. Under the catalysis of alkaline phosphatase, Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(paclitaxel)-Tyr(H2PO3)-OH could self-assemble into nanofiber Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(paclitaxel)-Tyr-OH with width comparable to the size of αβ-tubulin dimer. Therefore, we proposed in this work that nanofiber Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(paclitaxel)-Tyr-OH not only inhibits the αβ-tubulin dimer binding to each other but also interferes with the plus end aggregation of microtubule. This work provides a new mechanism of the inhibition of microtubule formation by a PTX-derivative hydrogelator.