2012 Vol. 25, No. 3

Article
Content
2012, 25(3): 0-0. doi: 10.1088/1674-0068/25/3/0-0
The pyrolysis of isopsoralen was studied by synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry at low pressure. The pyrolysis products were detected at different photon energies, the ratios of products to precursor were measured at various pyrolysis temperatures. The experimental results demonstrate that the main pyrolysis products are primary CO and sequential CO elimination products (C10H6O2 and C9H6O). The decomposition channels of isopsoralen were also studied by the density functional theory, then rate constants for competing pathways were calculated by the transition state theory. The dominant decom-position channels of isopsoralen and the molecular structures for corresponding products were identified by combined experimental and theoretical studies.
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy were used to investigate the photophysical properties of 2,3-dihydro-3-keto-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine (PTZ4) and 3-keto-1H-pyrido[3,2,1-kl]phenothiazine (PTZ5). The calculated results obtained from TDDFT suggest that the red-shifts of the absorption spectra of these two fluorophores in methanol are due to the formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes at the ground state. Four conformers of PTZ4 were obtained by TDDFT. The two fluorescence peaks of PTZ4 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) came from the ICT states of the four conformers. The fluorescence of PTZ4 in THF showed a dependence on the excitation wavelength because of butterfly bending. The excited state dynamics of PTZ4 in THF and methanol were obtained by transient absorption spectroscopy. The lifetime of the excited PTZ4 in methanol was 53.8 ps, and its relaxation from the LE state to the ICT state was completed within several picoseconds. The short lifetime of excited PTZ4 in methanol was due to the formation of out-of-plane model hydrogen bonds between PTZ4 and methanol at the excited state.
The electronic properties and stability of Li-doped ZnO with various defects have been stud-ied by calculating the electronic structures and defect formation energies via first-principles calculations using hybrid Hartree-Fock and density functional methods. The results from formation energy calculations show that Li pair complexes have the lowest formation energy in most circumstances and they consume most of the Li content in Li doped ZnO, which make the p-type conductance hard to obtain. The formation of Li pair complexes is the main obstacle to realize p-type conductance in Li doped ZnO. However, the formation energy ofLiZn decreases as environment changes from Zn-rich to O-rich and becomes more stable than that of Li-pair complexes at highly O-rich environment. Therefore, p-type conductance can be obtained by Li doped ZnO grown or post annealed in oxygen rich atmosphere.
Photo dissociation dynamics of diatomic molecular ion HBr+ interacting with ultra fast laser pulses of different envelop function has been presented both in zero and non zero temperature environment. The calculations pertain primarily to the ground electronic state of the molecular ion HBr+. The used potential of HBr+ is calibrated with the help of the ab initio theoretical calculation at the CCSD/6-311++G(3df, 2pd) level and then fitted with appropriate Morse parameters. The numerical bound states vibrational eigenvalues obtained by the time independent Fourier Grid Hamiltonian method have been compared with analytical values of the fitted Morse potential. The effect of temperature, pulse envelops function, and light intensity on the dissociation process has been explored.
The interaction potentials between electron and atom play an important role in electron-atom scattering. Using three potential models, the absolute differential cross section has been calculated by the second Born approximation theory. Results show that these model potentials are successful in the laser-assisted e-Ar scattering system. The influence of static potential, exchange potential and polarization potential on the absolute differential cross section is also analyzed and discussed.
The geometries and electronic spectra of a series of N-protonated corroles, including unsub-stituted H4Cor+ and meso-triaryl substituted H4TPC+, H4TpFPC+, and H4TdCPC+, were theoretically studied with density functional theory (DFT). The results indicate that all these compounds have two conformers, one with C2 symmetry (denoted as S1) is more stable than the other (denoted as S2, C1 symmetry) by 15.8?18.5 kJ/mol. The corrole macrocycles of these compounds show significant out-of-plane deformation. The enantiomerizations of the chiral S1 conformers were found to be a multi-step process with the S2 conformers as the in-termediates. Electronic absorption spectra and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of these compounds were calculated with time-dependent DFT. In comparison with H4Cor+, the UV-Vis absorptions of meso-triaryl species are significantly red-shifted and their Q bands are enhanced due to the π-π conjugation between the aryl and corrole rings. Several neighboring electronic transitions were calculated with opposite signs in rotatory strengths, suggesting that ECD spectroscopy may be a useful tool in studying the electronic transitions of these compounds.
A new potential energy surface is presented for the triplet state 3A' of the chemical reaction S(3P)+H2 from a set of accurate ab initio data. The single point energies are computed using highly correlated complete active space self-consistent-field and multi-reference config-uration interaction wave functions with a basis set of aug-cc-pV5Z. We have fitted the full set of energy values using many-body expansion method with an Aguado-Paniagua function. Based on the new potential energy surface, we carry out the time-dependent wave packet scattering calculations over the collision energy range of 0.8~2.2 eV. Both the centrifugal-sudden approximation and Coriolis Coupling cross sections are obtained. In addition, the total reaction probabilities are calculated for the reactant H2 initially in the vibrational states v=0~3 (j=0). It is found that initial vibrational excitation enhances the title reaction.
In order to investigate the inhibiting mechanism and obtain some helpful information for de-signing functional inhibitors against Wee1, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) and docking studies have been performed on 45 pyrido[2,3-d] pyrim-idine derivatives acting as Wee1 inhibitors. Two optimal 3D-QSAR models with significant statistical quality and satisfactory predictive ability were established, including the CoMFA model (q2=0.707, R2=0.964) and CoMSIA model (q2=0.645, R2=0.972). The external val-idation indicated that both CoMFA and CoMSIA models were quite robust and had high predictive power with the predictive correlation coefficient values of 0.707 and 0.794, essen-tial parameter r2m values of 0.792 and 0.826, the leave-one-out r2m(LOO) values of 0.781 and 0.809, r2m(overall) values of 0.787 and 0.810, respectively. Moreover, the appropriate binding orientations and conformations of these compounds interacting with Wee1 were revealed by the docking studies. Based on the CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps and docking analyses, several key structural requirements of these compounds responsible for inhibitory activity were identified as follows: simultaneously introducing high electropositive groups to the sub-stituents R1 and R5 may increase the activity, the substituent R2 should be smaller bulky and higher electronegative, moderate-size and strong electron-withdrawing groups for the substituent R3 is advantageous to the activity, but the substituent X should be medium-size and hydrophilic. These theoretical results help to understand the action mechanism and design novel potential Wee1 inhibitors.
The translocation of a confined polymer chain through an interacting nanopore has been studied using two-dimensional bond fluctuation model with Monte Carlo dynamics. For different pore-polymer interaction, the average escaping time〈Τesc〉of the polymer chain through the nanopore, increases roughly linearly with the chain length and the nanopore length, respectively. However, the large repulsive and attractive pore-polymer interaction adds the difficulty of the monomers of the chain entering and leaving the nanopore, respec-tively, leading to the nonmonotonical dependence of〈Τesc〉on the pore-polymer interaction. The detailed translocation dynamics of the chain through the interacting nanopore is inves-tigated too.
Holmium doped GaN diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films have been prepared by thermal evaporation technique and subsequent ammonia annealing. X-ray diffraction mea-surements reveal all peaks belong to the purely hexagonal wurtzite structure. Surface mor-phology and composition analysis were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy respectively. The room temperature ferromagnetic proper-ties of Ga1-xHoxN(x=0.0, 0.05) films were analyzed using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. Magnetic measurements showed that the undoped films (i.e. GaN) exhibited diamagnetic behavior, while the Ho-doped (Ga0.95Ho0.05N) film exhibited a ferro-magnetic behavior.
The method of density matching between the solid and liquid phases is often adopted to effectively eliminate the effect of sedimentation of suspensions on dynamic behavior of a colloidal system. Experiments on crystallization of charged colloidal microspheres with di-ameter of 98 nm dispersed in density-matched and -unmatched media (mixtures of H2O and D2O in proper proportion) are compared to examine the influence of sedimentation. Reflection spectra of colloidal suspensions were used to monitor the crystallization process. Results showed that the crystal size of the density-unmatched (namely, in the presence of sedimentation) sample grew faster than that of the density-matched (in the absence of sedi-mentation) case at the initial stage of the crystallization, and then the latter overtook and outstripped the former. To explain these observations, we assume that in the settling of crystals sedimentation facilitates result in more particles getting into the crystal structures. However, as the crystals increase to varying sizes, the settling velocities become large and hydrodynamic friction strips off some particles from the delicate crystal structures. Overall, the sedimentation appears to accelerate the crystal size growth initially and then retard the growth. In addition, the crystal structures formed under microgravity were more closely packed than that in normal gravity.
Chemical doping is an effective method to intrinsically modify the chemical and electronic property of graphene. We propose a novel approach to synthesize the nitrogen-doped graphene via thermal annealing graphene with urea, in which the nitrogen source can be controllably released from the urea by varying the annealed temperature and time. The doped N content and the configuration N as well as the thermal stabilities are also evaluated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Electrical measurements indi-cate that the conductivity of doped graphene can be well regulated with the N content. The method is expected to produce large scale and controllable N-doped graphene sheets for a variety of potential applications.
Since the fouling-releasing ability of silicone elastomers increased as their modulus decreases, we designed and prepared composites with embedded tiny NaCl crytals that were soluble after their immersion in water, resulting in water-filled porous elastomers. The scanning electron microscope images confirmed such a designed water-filling porous structure. The existence of many micro-drops of water in these specially designed elastomers decreased the shear storage modulus and increased the loss factors. The decrease of shear modulus plays a leading role here and is directly related to a lower critical peeling-off stress of apseudo-barnacle on them. Therefore, such a novel preparation with cheap salts instead of an expensive silicone provides a better way to make fouling-release paints with a lower modulus, a lower critical peeling-off stress and a better fouling-release property without a significant decrease of the cross-linking density.
Carbonaceous catalysts are potential alternatives to metal catalysts. Graphene has been paid much attention for its high surface area and light weight. Here, hydrogenated graphene has been prepared by a simple gamma ray irradiation of graphene oxide aqueous suspension at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopic, element analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer studies verified the hydrogenation of graphene. The as-prepared hydrogenated graphene can be used as a metal-free carbonaceous catalyst for the Fenton-like degradation of organic dye in water.
3D porous flower-like ZnO micro/nanostructure films grown on Ti substrates are synthesized via a very facile electrodeposition technique followed by heat treatment process. The ZnO architecture is assembled with ultra thin sheets, which consist of numbers of nanoparticles and pores, and the size of the nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the electrodepo-sition time or calcination temperature. It is worth noting that this synthetic method can provide an effective route for other porous metal oxide nanostructure films. Moreover, the photocatalytic performance shows the porous ZnO is an ideal photocatalyst.
A combinatorial chemistry method was employed to screen the Ba2+ and Fe3+ incorporated into cordierite structure (Ba0.05Fe0.1Mg)2Al4Si5O18 for exploring of high infrared radiance materials. A series of square-type sample array that consists of 7×7 compositions was syn-thesized by ink-jetting nitrate solutions into micro-reactor wells in a ceramic plate and then heat-treated at high temperatures. X-ray diffraction and infrared thermograph were used to analyze the effects of Ba2+/Fe3+ incorporating on the lattice distortion of cordierite and resultant changes in infrared radiance properties. Based on the results of X-ray phase analy-sis and radiance measurement of the scale-up prepared samples, the optimal Ba2+ and Fe3+ co-adding amount was determined to be 5%Ba2+ plus 10%Fe3+. Moreover, the infrared emissivity of the optimal composition at 100 oC was found to be higher than 0.8 in a wide wavelength range of 5-24 μm. The research work demonstrates a promising application of Ba2+/Fe3+ cordierite solid solution as a kind of infrared heating materials for energy saving.
The adsorption of poly (ethylene oxide)-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(PEO-b-P4VP) micelles onto the surface of yttrium hydroxide nanotubes (YNTs) resulted in the hybrid nanotubes with a dense P4VP inner layer and a stretched PEO outer layer surrounding YNTs. The dense P4VP layer was further stabilized by the crosslinking using 1,4-dibromobutane as the crosslinker. Then, the crosslinked hybrid nanotubes (CHNTs) were used as a novel nano supporter for loading the catalyst gold nanoparticles (GNPs) within the crosslinked P4VP layer. The resultant GNPs/CHNTs (GNTs loaded on CHNTs) were applied to catalyze the reduction reaction of p-nitrophenol. The results indicate that this novel nano supporter has advantages such as good dispersity in the suspension, high capacity in loading GNPs (0.87 mmol/g), high catalytic activity of the loaded GNPs (12.9 μmol-1min-1), and good reusability of GNTs/CHNTs.
We investigated the interaction between DNA and hexammine cobalt III [Co(NH3)6]3+ by a simple molecular combing method and dynamic light scattering. The average extension of ?λ-DNA-YOYO-1 complex is found to be 20.9 μm, about 30% longer than the contour length of the DNA in TE buffer (10 mmol/L Tris, 1 mmol/L EDTA, pH=8.0), due to bis-intercalation of YOYO-1. A multivalent cation, hexammine cobalt, is used for DNA condensation. We find that the length of DNA-[Co(NH3)6]3+ complexes decrease from 20.9 μm to 5.9 μm as the concentration of the [Co(NH3)6]3+ vary from 0 to 3 μmol/L. This observation provides a direct visualization of single DNA condensation induced by hexammine cobalt. The results from the molecular combing studies are supported by dynamic light scattering investigation, where the average hydrodynamic radius of the DNA complex decreases from 203.8 nm to 39.26 nm under the same conditions. It shows that the molecular combing method is feasible for quantitative conformation characterization of single bio-macromolecules.
Autothermal steam reforming (ATR) of bio-oil, which couples the endothermic steam reform-ing reaction with the exothermic partial oxidation, offers many advantages from a technical and economic point of view. Effective production of hydrogen through ATR of bio-oil was performed at lower temperature with NiCuZnAl catalyst. The highest hydrogen yield from bio-oil reached 64.3% with a nearly complete bio-oil conversion at 600 oC, the ratio of steam to carbon fed (S/C) of 3 and the oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) of 0.34. The reaction con-ditions in ATR including temperature, O/C, S/C and weight hourly space velocity can be used to control both hydrogen yield and products distribution. The comparison between the ATR and common steam reforming of bio-oil was studied. The mechanism of the ATR of bio-oil was also discussed.