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Resistance of Nanoclay Reinforced Epoxy Composites to Hyperthermal Atomic Oxygen Attack
Hei-long Wang,Vanessa J. Murray,Min Qian,Donna J. Minton,Ai-yi Dong,Kin-tak Lau,Bo-han Wu,Li Che*,Timothy K. Minton*
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Hei-long Wang College of Science, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, ChinaState Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China  
Vanessa J. Murray Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, 103 Chemistry and Biochemistry Bldg., Bozeman, Montana 59717, United States of America  
Min Qian Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China  
Donna J. Minton Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, 103 Chemistry and Biochemistry Bldg., Bozeman, Montana 59717, United States of America  
Ai-yi Dong College of Science, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China  
Kin-tak Lau Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia  
Bo-han Wu Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094, China  
Li Che* College of Science, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China liche@dlmu.edu.cn 
Timothy K. Minton* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, 103 Chemistry and Biochemistry Bldg., Bozeman, Montana 59717, United States of America tminton@montana.edu 
Abstract:
Due to outstanding mechanical properties, heat resistance, and relatively facile production, nanoclay reinforced epoxy composites (NCRE composites) have been suggested as candidate materials for use on external surfaces of spacecraft residing in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. The resistance of the NCRE composites to bombardment by atomic oxygen (AO), a dominant component of the LEO environment, has been investigated. Four types of samples were used in this study. They were pure epoxy (0 wt% nanoclay content), and NCRE composites with different loadings of nanoclay—1 wt%, 2 wt%, and 4 wt%. Etch depths decreased with increasing nanoclay content, and for the 4 wt% samples it ranged from 28% to 37% compared to that of pure epoxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that after AO bombardment, relative area of C-C/C-H peak decreased, while the area of the C-O, ketones peaks increased, and the oxidation degree of surfaces increased. New carbon-related component carbonates were detected on nanoclay containing composite surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that aggregates formed on nanoclay-containing surfaces after AO bombardment. The sizes and densities of aggregates increased with nanoclay content. The combined erosion depths, XPS and SEM results indicate that although all the studied surfaces got eroded and oxidized after AO bombardment, the nanoclay containing composites showed better AO resistance compared to pure epoxy, because the produced aggregates on surface potentially act as a physical “shield”, e ectively retarding parts of the surface from further AO etching.
Key words:  Atomic oxygen, Epoxy, Nanoclay, Low Earth orbit
FundProject:
纳米粘土增强环氧树脂复合材料抗原子氧性能的研究
王黑龙,Vanessa J. Murray,钱 敏,Donna J. Minton,董爱义,刘建德,武博涵,车 丽*,Timothy K. Minton
摘要:
本文采用激光爆破法高能原子氧束源研究了纳米粘土增强环氧树脂复合材料的抗原子氧性能. 研究了四种样品:纯环氧树脂,纳米粘土含量为1 wt%,2 wt%和4 wt%的纳米粘土增强环氧树脂复合材料,结果表明腐蚀深度随着纳米粘土含量的增加而降低,当掺杂纳米粘土含量为4 wt%时,腐蚀深度为纯环氧树脂腐蚀深度的28%∽37%;X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析表明原子氧轰击后,材料表面C-C/C-H键比例减少,C-O键、酮类比例增加,表面氧化程度增加,掺杂纳米粘土的材料表面生成了新的碳酸盐,掺杂4 wt%纳米粘土的复合材料表面氧化程度增加最小;扫描电子显微镜(SEM)结果显示含有纳米粘土的复合材料表面被原子氧轰击后在纳米粘土团簇处形成了“块状”物质,掺杂4 wt%纳米粘土的复合材料,“块状”物质尺寸和分布密度最大;综合腐蚀深度,XPS,以及SEM结果表明,虽然所有表面都一定程度地被原子氧腐蚀和氧化,但掺杂纳米粘土的复合材料表面由于生成了“块状”物质,阻挡了原子氧进一步腐蚀其下的材料,提高了抗原子氧性能.
关键词:  原子氧,环氧树脂,纳米粘土,低地球轨道
DOI:10.1063/1674-0068/cjcp1906119
分类号: