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Maximum Thermodynamic Electrical Efficiency of Fuel Cell System and Results for Hydrogen, Methane, and Propane Fuels
Rui-chao Mao,Xiao Ru,Zi-jing Lin*
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Rui-chao Mao Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and CAS Key Laboratory of StronglyCoupled Quantum Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China  
Xiao Ru Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and CAS Key Laboratory of StronglyCoupled Quantum Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China  
Zi-jing Lin* Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and CAS Key Laboratory of StronglyCoupled Quantum Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China zjlin@ustc.edu.cn 
Abstract:
The maximum electrical efficiency of fuel cell system, ηemax, is important for the understanding and development of the fuel cell technology. Attempt is made to build a theory for ηemax by considering the energy requirement of heating the fuel and air streams to the fuel cell operating temperature T. A general thermodynamic analysis is performed and the energy balances for the overall operating processes of a fuel cell system are established. Explicit expressions for the determination of ηemax are deduced. Unlike the Carnot efficiency, ηemax is found to be fuel specific. Except for hydrogen fuel, chemical equilibrium calculations are necessary to compute ηemax. Analytical solutions for the chemical equilibrium of alkane fuels are presented. The theoretical model is used to analyze the effects of T and the steam contents of CH4, C3H8, and H2 on ηemax for systems with various degrees of waste heat recovery. Contrary to the common perception concerning methane and propane fuels, ηemax decreases substantially with the increase of T. Moreover, ηemax of hydrogen fuel can be higher than that of methane and propane fuels for a system with a medium level of waste heat recovery and operated at 700 ℃≤T≤900 ℃.
Key words:  Analytical theory  Energy balance  Nernst potential  Fuel utilization  Alkane  Chemical equilibrium
FundProject:This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.11574284 and No.11774324), the National Basic Research Program of China (No.2012CB215405) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology. And Prof. Qing-quan Lei is thanked for his stimulation of this work.
燃料电池系统最大热力学电效率及对氢气、甲烷和丙烷的应用结果
毛芮超,汝啸,林子敬*
摘要:
燃料电池系统的最大电效率(ηemax)对理解和发展燃料电池技术至关重要.本文通过对燃料电池系统的热力学分析,在考虑加热燃料与空气至燃料电池工作温度的热量需求的基础上,建立了燃料电池运行过程的能量平衡关系,进而推导出了ηemax的显式理论表达式.结果表明,与卡诺效率不同,ηemax与燃料有关.由于除氢燃料外,计算ηemax需要进行化学平衡计算,本文推导了烷烃燃料化学平衡态的解析解.所得理论模型被用于分析温度(T)与燃料水含量及废热回收率对ηemax的影响.结果表明,甲烷和丙烷燃料的ηemax随温度的升高而显著降低.此外,对中等废热回收率且运行于700 ℃≤T≤900 ℃的燃料电池系统,氢气燃料的ηemax要高于甲烷和丙烷燃料的ηemax.
关键词:  解析理论  能量平衡  能斯特势  燃料利用率  烷烃  化学平衡
DOI:10.1063/1674-0068/31/cjcp1711203
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