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Mechanistic Study of Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative C-H/C-H Coupling of Polyfluoroarenes with Simple Arenes
Shi-ya Tang,Hai-zhu Yu*,Wan-li You,Qing-xiang Guo*
Author NameAffiliationE-mail
Shi-ya Tang Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China  
Hai-zhu Yu* Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China  
Wan-li You Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China  
Qing-xiang Guo* Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China qxguo@ustc.edu.cn 
Abstract:
Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reaction is an emerging type of C-H acti-vation reaction, which attracts great interests because both reaction partners do not re-quire pre-functionalization. In the present study, we employed DFT methods to investigate the mechanism of Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H coupling of pentafluoroben-zene with benzene. Four possible pathways were examined in the C-H activation part: path A benzene-pentafluorobenzene mechanism (C-H activation of benzene occurs before the C-H activation of pentafluorobenzene), path B pentafluorobenzene-benzene mechanism (C-H activation of benzene occurs after the C-H activation of pentafluorobenzene), path C benzene-pentafluorophenylsilver mechanism (C-H activation of benzene and subsequent transmetalation with pentafluorophenyl silver complex), path D pentafluorophenylsilver-benzene mechanism (transmetalation with pentafluorophenyl silver complex and subsequent C-H activation of benzene). Based on the calculations, the sequences of two C-H activation steps are found to be different in the oxidative couplings of same substrates (i.e. pentaflu-orobenzene and benzene) in different catalytic systems, where the additive Ag salts played a determinant role. In the absence of Ag salts, the energetically favored pathway is path B (i.e. the C-H activation of pentafluorobenzene takes place before the C-H cleavage of benzene). In contrast, with the aid of Ag salts, the coordination of pentafluorophenylsilver to Pd center could occur easily with a subsequent C-H activation of benzene in the second step, and the second step significantly raises the whole reaction barrier. Alternatively, in the presence of Ag salts, the kinetically preferred mechanism is path C (i.e. the C-H activation of benzene takes place in the first step followed by transmetalation with pentafluorophenyl-silver complex), which is similar to path A. The calculations are consistent with the H/D exchange experiment and kinetic isotope effects. Thus the present study not only offers a deeper understanding of oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reaction, but also provides helpful insights to further development of more efficient and selective oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reactions.
Key words:  Pd catalysis, Oxidative coupling, C-H activation, Mechanism, Pentafluo- robenzene
FundProject:
钯催化多氟代芳烃与简单芳烃的氧化C-H/C-H偶联反应机理
唐诗雅,于海珠*,尤万里,郭庆祥*
摘要:
运用密度泛函方法研究了醋酸钯催化的五氟苯与苯的氧化C-H/C-H偶联反应机理. 主要考察了以下四种不同可能机理路径:A 苯C-H活化发生在五氟苯C-H活化前,B 五氟苯C-H活化发生在苯C-H活化前,C 苯C-H活化后与五氟苯银化合物发生转金属化,D 首先五氟苯银化合物与醋酸钯转金属化,然后发生苯的C-HH活化步骤. 计算结果表明,两个反应底物(五氟苯与苯)的C-H活化顺序在不同反应条件下是不同的,其中银盐的存在与否是决定因素. 在无银盐条件下,反应的优势路径是机理B. 在银盐存在条件下,五氟苯银盐与钯中心的配位非常容易,但是其生成的中间体难以引导后续的苯环C-H活化步骤,使得整个反应能垒较高. 因此,银盐的存在使得机理C的能量相对优势,该机理与机理A相似. 计算结果与氢/氘交换实验及动力学同位素效应的实验结果一致.
关键词:  钯催化,氧化偶联,C-H活化,机理,密度泛函,五氟苯
DOI:10.1063/1674-0068/26/04/415-423
分类号: