2006 Vol. 19, No. 6

Article
Here we report calculation of the differential interference angles (including b≤ ρ and b≥ρ ) for singlet-triplet mixed states of Na2(A1∑+u,v=8~b3Π0u,v=14) system in collision with Na, in order to study the collision induced quantum interference on rotational energy transfer in an atom-diatom system. The calculation is based on the first-order Born approximation of time-dependent perturbation theory, and the anisotropic Lennard-Jones interaction potentials are also employed. The relationships between differential interference angle and impact parameter, including collision diameter and velocity, are obtained.
Collisions between hot H atoms and CO2 molecules were studied experimentally by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy. H atoms with three translational energies, 174.7, 241.0 and 306.2 kJ/mol respectively, were generated by UV laser photolysis to initiate a chemical reaction of H+CO2!OH+CO. Vibrationally excited CO (v≤2) was observed in the spectrum, where CO was the product of the reaction. The highly efficient T-V energy transfer from the hot H atoms to the CO2 was verified too. The highest vibrational level of v=4 in CO2 (v≤3) was found. Rate ratio of the chemical reaction to the energy transfer was estimated as 10.
An algebraic Hamiltonian for the two coupled nonlinear vibrations of highly excited nonrigid molecule HCP was presented. The Hamiltonian reduces to the conventional one in a limit which was expressed in terms of harmonic oscillator operators. It showed that the algebraic model can better reproduce the data than the conventional model by fitting the observed data of HCP.
To consider the reliability and performance of electronic devices based on polyimide derivatives, dynamic water sorption and diffusion behavior in a polyimide derivative: poly(4'4-oxydiphenylene pyromellitimide) (PMDA-ODA)/silica nanocomposite was investigated by two-dimensional ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, by which three states of water molecules owning different H-bonding strength were distinguished. The amounts and strength of H-bonding also played a significant role in determining the diffusion rate of the different states of water molecules. The type of aggregated water molecules which also formed H-bonding with silicic acid (residues) or polyimide system was the last one diffusing to the polymer side in contact with the ATR crystal element because the polymeric matrix blocked their diffusion to a great extent. The diffusion coe±cient was also estimated to gain the information of the dynamic diffusion behavior.
A novel model was developed to theoretically evaluate the O2 adsorption on H-terminated Si(001)-(2*2*1) surface. The periodic boundary condition, the ultrasoft pseudopotentials technique based on density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional were applied in our ab initio calculations. By analyzing bonding energy on site, the favourable adsorption site was determined. The calculations also predicted that the adsorption products should be Si=O and H2O. This theoretical study supported the reaction mechanism provided by Kovalev et al. The results were also a base for further investigation of some more complex systems such as the oxidation on porous silicon surface.
A new model for self-diffusion coe±cients was proposed based on both the concepts of molecular free volume and activation energy. The unknown parameters of this model were clearly defined and compared with the Chapman-Enskog model. At the same time a new method for calculating activation energy was devised and applied to the new model. In addition, the free volume was defined by implementing the generic van der Waals equation of state, the radial distribution function of which was obtained by using the MorsaliGoharshadi empirical formula. Under the same conditions, the new model was better than the original free volume model.
LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M=Ni,Zr) films were fabricated by radio frequency sputtering deposition combined with conventional annealing methods. The structures of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. It was shown that the 700 ±C-annealed LiCo0.8M0.2O2 has an @-NaFeO2-like layered structure. All-solid-state thin-film batteries (TFBs) were fabricated with these films as the cathode and their electrochemical performances were evaluated. It was found that doping of electrochemically active Ni and inactive Zr has different effects on the structural and electrochemical properties of the LiCoO2 cathode films. Ni doping increases the discharge capacity of the film while Zr doping improves its cycling stability.
A novel type of composite electrode based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with sheet-like cobalt hydroxide particles was used in supercapacitors. Cobalt hydroxide cathodically deposited from Co(NO3)2 solution with carbon nanotubes as matrix exhibited large pseudo-capacitance of 322 F/g in 1 mol/L KOH. To characterize the cobalt hydroxide nanocomposite electrode, a charge-discharge cycling test, cyclic voltammetry, and an impedance test were done. This cobalt hydroxide composite exhibiting excellent pseudo-capacitive behavior (i.e. high reversibility, high specific capacitance, low impedance), was demonstrated to be a candidate for the application of electrochemical supercapacitors. A combined capacitor consisting of cobalt hydroxide composite as a cathode and activated carbon fiber as an anode was reported. The electrochemical performance of the combined capacitor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and a dc charge/discharge test. The combined capacitor showed ideal capacitor behavior with an extended operating voltage of 1.4 V. According to the extended operating voltage, the energy density of the combined capacitor at a current density of 100 mA/cm2 was found to be 11 Wh/kg. The combined capacitor exhibited high-energy density and stable power characteristics.
A series of fluorescent chemosensors 1-3 were synthesized to detect transition metal ions. At the room temperature, fluorescence intensities of these chemosensors in acetonitrile without transition metal ions were found to be very weak, due to the process of the e±cient intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET). However, after addition of the transition metal ions, the chemosensor 1-3 exhibits obvious fluorescence enhancement. Moreover, the intensity of the fluorescence emission of chemosensors increases significantly in the presence of Zn2+ and Cd2+. The fluorescent chemosensors with different polyamine as receptors show diverse a±nity abilities to the transition metal ions and signal the receptor-metal ion interaction by the intensity change of fluorescence emission.
Amorphous SiOx nanotubes with homogeneous diameters were fabricated in large-scale on silicon substrate by thermal evaporation method, with liquid gallium as medium. The average diameter of tubes is about 80 nm and the length is more than 10 1m, with small ratio between the inner and outer diameter of the tube. The silicon element in the substrate and the residual oxygen element in reaction chamber were first dissolved into liquid Ga. Then the SiOx precipitated from the surface of gallium droplet, forming the nanotube structure with Ga droplet being the center. The room temperature photoluminescence measurements under excitation at 260 nm show that the SiOx nanotubes has a strong blue emission at 453 nm with two shoulders at 410 and 480 nm respectively, which may be related to oxygen defects. The preparation method improved the traditional complicated method and also provided a new way to fabricate SiOx nanotubes in large quantity.
Dielectric properties of dithiol self-assemble monolayers (SAMs) under ac electric field were presented. Using a Hg-SAM/SAM-Hg junction, the ac impedances of dithiol SAMs were measured using a sinusoidal perturba- tion of 30 mV (peak-to-peak) with the frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 1 MHz at zero bias. The contributions from dithiol SAMs and solvent interlayers were separated due to their different behaviors at ac impedance. The peak position in the loss spectra (the plot of tg± vs: frequency) moves to low frequency with the increase of chain length of dithiols. Using a correlation of peak position with the chain length, the active energies of 23-39 meV for dithiol SAMs of C6-C10 under an ac electric field were derived.
8β-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-ene-12,8α(4β,6α)-diolide was isolated from the Ligularia intermedia and char- acterized by MS, multi NMR and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure was determined as in a orthorhombic type, with space group P212121 with a=6.8519(5), b=10.7191(8), c=18.5942(14) oA, V =1365.67(18) oA3, Z=4, and the calculated density is 1.354 mg/m3. F(000)=592, μ=0.101 mm-1.
Nd3+:NaLa(WO4)2 crystals with a dimension up to 7 mm were grown from a high temperature solution using a double-crucible method. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the crystals showed that there were no small cracks on the surface of the crystals although they underwent two phase transitions when cooling down from high temperatures. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that the as-obtained product is pure low- temperature tetragonal Nd3+:NaLa(WO4)2. The absorption and fluorescence spectra for Nd3+:NaLa(WO4)2 were measured at room temperature. The absorption band at 804 nm has a wide full-width half maximum of 23 nm whose origin is discussed. The absorption and emission cross sections were calculated to be 7.24*10-20 cm2 at 804 nm and 6.54*10-20 cm2 at 1057 nm, respectively.
Micromolding in capillaries of a micro-square array was carried out for polystyrene solution in acetone by means of swollen polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomeric stamp. The resulting micro-cubic poles were isolated and separable when the added amount of the polystyrene solution was small. Some special distorting micro-patterns in the micro-square array were observed because of shrinkage resulting from the varying evaporation rate of solvent at different places.
The LiFePO4 nanotubes were successfully fabricated by a sol-gel method with porous anodic aluminum oxide as the template. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the synthe- sized LiFePO4 nanotubes were monodispersed and parallel to one another. Selected area electron diffraction pattern, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations jointly demonstrated that the synthesized LiFePO4 nanotubes were pure olivine structure. This approach offered a potentially way for fabricating ordered LiFePO4 nanotubes at room temperature and ambient conditions, which might be expected to find promising application as a new cathode material in lithium ion battery.
The ultrasonic, magnetic and transport properties of Nd0.5Ca0.5Mn1-xAlxO3 (x=0, 0.03) were studied from 15 to 300 K. The temperature dependencies of resistivity and magnetization show that Nd0.5Ca0.5Mn1-xAlxO3 undergoes a charge ordering transition at TCO?257 K. An obvious softening of the longitudinal sound ve- locity above TCO and a dramatic stiffening below TCO accompanied by an attenuation peak were observed. These features imply a strong electron-phonon interaction via the Jahn-Teller effect in the sample. Another broad attenuation peak was observed at around Tp?80 K. This anomaly is attributed to the phase separa- tion between the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and paramagnetic (PM) phases and gives a direct evidence for spin-phonon coupling in the compound. For the x=0.03 sample, both the minimum of sound velocity and attenuation peaks shift to a lower temperature. The results indicate that the charge ordering and CE-type AFM state in Nd0.5Ca0.5Mn1-xAlxO3 are both partially suppressed by replacing Mn with Al.
The co-doping of iron and cerium into TiO2 was studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. when separately doping via the sol-gel method, iron was introduced in the framework of anatase TiO2 whereas cerium was not; interestingly, both iron and cerium were introduced in the framework when co-doping by the sol-gel method. The co-doped TiO2 behaves much more intense surface hydroxyl concentration than the separately-doped and pure TiO2. This observation demonstrates for the first time a cooperative effect in the co-doping of transitional metals in the framework of TiO2.
Micrometer-sized MoO2 hollow spheres were synthesized hydrothermally with ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate as molybdenum source, Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent and C2H5OH as reducing agent, respectively. The products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermo- gravimetry and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A morphology transition of "blocks-solid spheres-hollow spheres" during the growth process was observed and the possible mechanism for the formation of MoO2 samples was proposed to be through a microscale Kirkendall effect.
Nanoscale Sb doped titanium dioxide thin films photocatalyst (Ti1-xSbO2) were obtained from dip-coating sol-gel method. The influence of dopant Sb density on the crystal structure and the phase transformation of the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. The results of XRD showed that as-prepared films were not only in anatase state but also in brookite. The crystalline size was estimated to be around 13.3-20 nm. Raman spectra indicated there coexisted other phases and a transformation from brookite to anatase in the samples doped with 0.2% Sb. After doping a proper amount of Sb, the crystallization rate and the content of the anatase Ti1?xSbO2 in the thin films was clearly enhanced because Sb replaced part of the Ti of TiO2 in the thin films. The anode current density (photocurrent density) and the first order reaction speed constant (k) of thin films doped with 0.2% Sb reached 42.49 1A/cm2 and 0.171 h/cm2 under 254 nm UV illumination, respectively, which is about 11 times and 2 times that of the non-doped TiO2 anode prepared by the same method respectively.
A novel NOx storage/reduction catalyst 12CaO-7Al2O3/10%K, defined as C12A7/K, was prepared, which possesses good NOx storage/reduction ability with a high sulfur-tolerance. The effect of H2O on the NO reduction features over the C12A7/K catalyst was investigated. The NO conversion and the N2 selectivity were measured as a function of temperature and H2O concentration. In the presence of 1.2% H2O, both the NO conversion and the N2 selectivity significantly decrease at lower temperature region (<500 ±C). At temperatures over 500 ±C, however, the NO reduction is only slightly influenced by H2O. The species of NO3?/NO2? are confirmed as main storage components in the C12A7/K catalyst, which are further reduced into N2 by H2 under the reduction conditions.
TiO2 nanostructures were fabricated by a reaction of Ti foils in H2O2 solution at mild temperature. Porous TiO2 nanostructures, well-adhered to Ti foil surfaces, were formed at 80 ±C in 10 min, and then flower- like and rod nanostructures formed in succession after a longer reaction time. Samples prepared at 80 ±C for 4 h are amorphous, and anatase-dominated crystal phase emerged in the sample prepared for as long as 10 h. Almost pure anatase phase were obtained in TiO2 nanostructures by annealing the samples at a temperature of 300 ±C. Photocatalysis of the TiO2 nanostructures was characterized by the degradation of RhB dye molecules in an aqueous solution exposed to ultraviolet light. Results show a 7 cm2 annealed TiO2 flower-like nanostructure having the degradation rate of RhB as fast as 29.8 times that of the dye solution exposed to ultraviolet light alone.