2010 Vol. 23, No. 6

Content
Content
2010, 23(6): 1-1. doi: 10.1088/1674-0068/23/6/1-1
Article
We have investigated the dynamics of the F+C4H6 reaction using the universal crossed molecular beam method. The C4H5F+H reaction channel was observed in this experiment. Angular resolved time-of-flight spectra have been measured for the C4H5F product. Product angular distributions as well as kinetic energy distributions were determined for this product channel. Experimental results show that the C4H5F product is largely backward scattered with considerable forward scattering signal, relative to the F atom beam direction. This suggests that the reaction channel mainly proceeds via a long-lived complex formation mechanism, with possible contribution from a direct SN2 type mechanism.
The laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled NiB radicals have been recorded in the energy range of 19000-22100 cm-1. Eleven bands have been assigned to the [20.77]2II-X2+ transition system for the first time. The dispersed fluorescence spectra related to most of these bands have been investigated. Vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state, with v" up to 6, have been observed. In addition, the lifetimes for almost all the observed bands have also been measured.
The absorbing process in isolating and coating process of α-olefin drag reducing polymer was studied by molecular dynamic simulation method, on basis of coating theory of α-olefin drag reducing polymer particles with polyurethane as coating material. The distributions of sodium laurate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on the surface of α-olefin drag reducing polymer particles were almost the same, but the bending degrees of them were obviously different. The bending degree of SLA molecules was greater than those of the other two surfactant molecules. Simulation results of absorbing and accu-mulating structure showed that, though hydrophobic properties of surfactant molecules were almost the same, water density around long chain sulfonate sodium was bigger than that around alkyl sulfate sodium. This property goes against useful absorbing and accumulating on the surface of α-olefin drag reducing polymer particles; simulation results of interactions of different surfactant and multiple hydroxyl compounds on surface of particles showed that, interactions of different surfactant and one kind of multiple hydroxyl compound were similar to those of one kind of surfactant and different multiple hydroxyl compounds. These two contrast types of interactions also exhibited the differences of absorbing distribution and closing degrees to surface of particles. The sequence of closing degrees was derived from sim-ulation; control step of addition polymerization interaction in coating process was absorbing mass transfer process, so the more closed to surface of particle the multiple hydroxyl com-pounds were, the easier interactions with isocyanate were. Simulation results represented the compatibility relationship between surfactant and multiple hydroxyl compounds. The isolating and coating processes of α-olefin drag reducing polymer were further understood on molecule and atom level through above simulation research, and based on the simulation, a referenced theoretical basis was provided for practical optimal selection and experimental preparation of α-olefin drag reducing polymer particles suspension isolation agent.
The excited state characters of HY103 have been studied by means of time-resolved photon emission (time-correlated single photon counting) and time dependent density functional theory calculations. The experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that HY103 dyes undergo an efficient one-bond-flip motion after photoexicitation at room temperature, which leads to a very short lifetime of the normal fluorescence state, and a weak fluorescence emission around 670 nm. However, when HY103 are excited in amorphous glasses at 77 K, the normal fluorescence emission is prolonged to nanoseconds time scale about 2 ns, and the fluorescence emission is enhanced. Furthermore, a new emission state is produced, which is characterized as a volume-conserved twisted (VCT) state. This is the first observation of a VCT state. The experiment indicates that the VCT motion of excited state of ?-conjugated molecules in restricted environment can form a stable emission state, and the excited state character of ?-conjugated molecules in restricted environment is complex.
The potential energy profile of the reaction between the atomic oxygen radical anion and acetonitrile has been mapped at the G3MP2B3 level of theory. Geometries of the reactants, products, intermediate complexes, and transition states involved in this reaction have been optimized at the (U)B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, and then their accurate relative energies have been improved using the G3MP2B3 method. The potential energy profile is confirmed via intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations of transition states. Four possible production channels are examined respectively, as H+ transfer, H-atom transfer, H2+ transfer, and bi-molecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction pathways. Based on present calculations, the H2+ transfer reaction is major among these four channels, which agrees with previous experimental conclusions
Theoretical investigations on the stereodynamics of the O(3P)+D2 reaction have been calcu-lated by means of the quasi-classical trajectory to study the product rotational polarization at collision energy of 104.5 kJ/mol on the potential energy surface of the ground 3A" triplet state. The vector properties including angular momentum alignment distributions and four polarization dependent generalized differential cross-sections of product have been presented. Furthermore, the influence of reagent vibrational excitation on the product vector properties has also been studied. The results indicate that the vector properties are sensitively affected by reagent vibrational excitation.
We compare the results of some perturbative quantum dissipation approaches to the exact linear absorption of two state systems. The considered approximate methods are the so-called complete second-order quantum dissipation theories, in either the chronological ordering prescription or the correlated driving-dissipation form. Analytical results can be derived for the linear absorption of two-state systems. Assessments on their applicability are then made by comparison to the exact results.
The adsorption behaviors of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid on silver and gold nanoparticles were studied by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and density functional theory. The silver and gold films by electrodeposition have the same excellent characteristics as SERS-active substrates. At the same, the SERS spectra indicate that 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecules are adsorbed on the surfaces of gold nanoparticles through the S atom, and that the carboxyl group is far away from surface of gold nanoparticles, and that there is a certain angle between the plane of benzene ring and gold film. However, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecules are adsorbed on the surfaces of silver nanoparticles through the carboxyl group, and the S atom is far away from surface of silver nanoparticles, and there is also a certain angle between the plane of benzene ring and the surface of silver nanoparticles. Here it is demonstrated the calculated Raman frequencies are in good agreement with experimental values, and the calculated Raman frequencies are also helpful to infer the adsorption behaviors of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecules.
The analytic response theory at density functional theory level is applied to investigate one-photon and two-photon absorption properties of a series of recently synthesized pyrene-core derivatives. The theoretical results show that there are a few charge-transfer states for each compound in the lower energy region. The one-photon absorption properties of the five investigated compounds are highly consistent with those given by experimental measure-ments. The two-photon absorption intensities of the compounds are greatly enhanced with the increments of the molecular sizes, in which the two-photon absorption cross section of the four-branched compound is about 5.6 times of that of the mono-branched molecule. Further-more, it is shown that the two-photon absorption properties are sensitive to the geometrical arrangements.
The rate constants of the nucleophilic reactions between amines and benzhydrylium ions were calculated using first-principles theoretical methods. Solvation models including PCM, CPCM, and COSMORS, as well as different types of atomic radii including UA0, UAKS, UAHF, Bondi, and UFF, and several single-point energy calculation methods (B3LYP, B3P86, B3PW91, BHANDH, PBEPBE, BMK, M06, MP2, and ONIOM method) were exam-ined. By comparing the correlation between experimental rate constants and the calculated values, the ONIOM(CCSD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2p):B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p))// B3LYP/6-31G(d)/PCM/UFF) method was found to perform the best. This method was then employed to calculate the rate constants of the reactions between diverse amines and diarylcarbenium ions. The calculated rate constants for 65 reactions of amines with diarylcarbenium ions are in agreement with the experimental values, indicating that it is feasible to predict the rate constant of a reaction between an amine and a diarylcarbenium ion through ab initio calculation.
Making use ofWeierstrass's theorem and Chebyshev's theorem and referring to the equations of state of the scaled-particle theory and the Percus-Yevick integration equation, we demon-strate that there exists a sequence of polynomials such that the equation of state is given by the limit of the sequence of polynomials. The polynomials of the best approximation from the third order up to the eighth order are obtained so that the Carnahan-Starling equation can be improved successively. The resulting equations of state are in good agreement with the simulation results on the stable fluid branch and on the metastable fluid branch.
MnxNi0:5-xZn0:5Fe2O4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by the thermal treatment of rod-like precursors that were fabricated by the co-precipitation of Mn2+, Ni2+, and Fe2+ in the lye. The phase, morphology, and particle diameter were examined by the X-ray diffrac-tion and transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic properties of the samples were stud-ied using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The results indicated that pure Ni0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 nanorods with a diameter of 35 nm and an aspect ratio of 15 were prepared. It was found that the diameter of the MnxNi0:5-xZn0:5Fe2O4 (0≤x≤0.5) samples increased, the length and the aspect ratio decreased, with an increase in x value. When x=0.5, the diameter and the aspect ratio of the sample reached up to 50 nm and 7~8, respectively. The coercivity of the samples first increased and then decreased with the increase in the x value. The coer-civity of the samples again increased when the x value was higher than 0.4. When x=0.5,the coercivity of the MnxNi0:5-xZn0:5Fe2O4 sample reached the maximal value (134.3 Oe)at the calcination temperature of 600 oC. The saturation magnetization of the samples first increased and then decreased with the increase in the x value. When x=0.2, the satura-tion magnetization of the sample reached the maximal value (68.5 emu/g) at the calcination temperature of 800 oC.
Thickness effects of thin La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) films on (LaAlO3)0:3(Sr2AlTaO6)0:7 sub-strates were examined by a slow positron beam technique. Doppler-broadening line shape parameter S was measured as a function of thickness and differnt annealing conditions. Re-sults reveal there could be more than one mechanism to induce vacancy-like defects. It was found that strain-induced defects mainly influence the S value of the in situ oxygen- ambience annealing LSMO thin films and the strain could vanish still faster along with the increase of thickness, and the oxygen-deficient induced defects mainly affect the S value of post-annealing LSMO films.
We investigate the effects of etching gases on the synthesis of nano crystalline diamonds grown on silicon substrate at the substrate temperature of 550 oC and the reaction pressure of 4 kPa by hot filament chemical vapor deposition method, in which CH4 and H2 act as a source and diluting gases, respectively. N2, H2, and NH3 were used as the etching gases, respectively. Results show that the optimum conditions can be obtained only for the case of H2 gas. The crystal morphology and crystallinity of the samples have been examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively.
The reforming of anisole (as model compound of bio-oil) was performed over the NiCuZn-Al2O3 catalyst, using a recently-developed electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR). The influence of the current on the anisole reforming in the ECR process has been investigated. It was observed that anisole reforming was significantly enhanced by the current approached over the catalyst in the electrochemical catalytic process, which was due to the non-uniform temperature distribution in the catalytic bed and the role of the thermal electrons orig-inating from the electrified wire. The maximum hydrogen yield of 88.7% with a carbon conversion of 98.3% was obtained through the ECR reforming of anisole at 700 oC and 4 A. X-ray diffraction was employed to characterize catalyst features and their alterations in the anisole reforming. The apparent activation energy for the anisole reforming is calculated as 99.54 kJ/mol, which is higher than ethanol, acetic acid, and light fraction of bio-oil. It should owe to different physical and chemical properties and reforming mechanism for different hydrocarbons.
Polyaniline (PANI)/silver composite was one-step synthesized under γ-ray irradiation. The structure of the composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible, and X-ray diffraction, which indicated that PANI and face-centered-cubic silver were synthesized under γ-ray irradiation. The reaction mechanism were discussed, which revealed that the PANI was formed by the reaction of aniline cation radicals formed by the reaction of aniline cation and ·OH, and Ag was formed by the reaction of Ag+ and e-aq. The morphology of the composite consisted of PANI nanofibers and Ag nanoparticles, and the mechanism of the morphology formation was discussed, which revealed that the rapid mixing like polymerization process might play an important role. It was revealed that the transport behavior of the composite well fitted with the variable-range-hopping model in 80-300 K and deviated from the model below 80 K.
The perovskite-type oxide solid solution Ba0.98Ce0.8Tm0.2O3-α was prepared by high tem-perature solid-state reaction and its single phase character was confirmed by X-ray diffrac-tion. The conduction property of the sample was investigated by alternating current impedance spectroscopy and gas concentration cell methods under different gases atmo-spheres in the temperature range of 500-900 oC. The performance of the hydrogen-air fuel cell using the sample as solid electrolyte was measured. In wet hydrogen, the sample is a pure protonic conductor with the protonic transport number of 1 in the range of 500-600 oC, a mixed conductor of proton and electron with the protonic transport number of 0.945-0.933 above 600 oC. In wet air, the sample is a mixed conductor of proton, oxide ion, and elec-tronic hole. The protonic transport numbers are 0.010-0.021, and the oxide ionic transport numbers are 0.471-0.382. In hydrogen-air fuel cell, the sample is a mixed conductor of proton, oxide ion and electron, the ionic transport numbers are 0.942-0.885. The fuel cell using Ba0.98Ce0.8Tm0.2O3-α as solid electrolyte can work stably. At 900 oC, the maximum power output density is 110.2 mW/cm2, which is higher than that of our previous cell using Ba0.98Ce0.8Tm0.2O3-α (x≤1, RE=Y, Eu, Ho) as solid electrolyte.
Well-crystallized with excellent luminescent properties, Tb(BO2)3 nanorods were first suc-cessfully synthesized by a simple solid-state method with Ag as catalyst. The result of X-ray diffraction showed that the Tb(BO2)3 nanorods could be well-crystallized at 700 oC. As-prepared straight nanorods of Tb(BO2)3 had the typical diameters in the range of 100-200 nm, the thickness of 30-50 nm and the lengths up to 3 μm by transmission elec-tron microscopy and the corresponding selected area electron diffraction indicated that the nanorod calcined at 700 oC was single-crystalline. Based on the fact that Ag nanoparti-cles attached to the tips and middles of the Tb(BO2)3 nanorods, a growth model of the Tb(BO2)3 nanorods was proposed. Photoluminescence spectra under excitation at 369 nm showed that these Tb(BO2)3 phosphors had a green emission at 546 nm, which is ascribed to 5D47F5 transition. The effect of calcining temperature on the structures, morphologies, and luminescent properties of Tb(BO2)3 phosphors were studied.
A novel nematic liquid crystal compound containing a cinnamoyl moiety (PCPC) and a typically cholesteric liquid crystal cholesteryl cinnamate (CC) were synthesized to explore the mechanism ofcinnamoyl compounds, and the chemical structures of photodimerizationwere confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic reso-nance spectral analysis. The photoreaction behaviors of these two cinnamoyl compounds in mesomorphic state and solution were investigated, UV-Vis spectral analysis was used toanalyze the photoproduct. The results show that the photochemistry of PCPC in nematic state involves both photodimerization and photoisomerization, while CC shows a complex reaction which can be divided into three parts, and this has enabled us to present new data and interpretations regarding the [2+2] photocycloaddition reaction. Additionally, the re-sults of UV-Vis spectral analysis in solutions strongly suggest that UV-Vis spectral analysis can be used to study the kinetic behaviors of cinnamoyl moiety photoreaction.
Rb-substitued Pr1-xRbxMnO3 (0.05≤x≤0.08) was successfully synthesized by solid state reaction. Powder X-ray diffraction showed that all the compounds were orthorhombic with the space group of Pnma. Spin glass behaviors were observed for all the compounds at low temperature, suggesting the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic. The temperature dependence of the resistivity for the compound Pr0.92Rb0.08MnO3.02 at 0 and 2 T magnetic field was also investigated. The compound shows semiconducting behavior, and the band gap is 0.3 eV. The maximum magnetoresistance is about 30% at 2 T magnetic field near 116 K.
Calcium carbonate was synthesized in a CaCl2/NaCO3 mixed solution by using ethylenedi-aminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as an additive. The thermodynamics and kinetics analyses indicate that although the driving force of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precipi-tation is always less than that of calcite and vaterite precipitation, the nucleation rate of ACC is greater than that of calcite and vaterite at the initial stage of the precipitation reaction. With the increasing incubation time, vaterite and calcite particles nucleate het-erogeneously by using the as-formed particles as active sites. Scanning electron microscopyimages indicate that the transformation mechanism of ACC and vaterite to calcite is the dissolution-recrystallisation reaction. The presence of EDTA not only improves the stabil-ities of ACC and vaterite, but also leads to forming enlongated, connected rhombohedralcalcite crystals after incubation 7 days in solutions. The ACC and vaterite are stabler in air than in solutions at room temperature, although the dissolution-recrystallisation reaction occurs on the surface.
The microphase-separating behaviors of two types of star-diblock copolymers (Ax)4(By)4 and (AxBy)4 in thin films are studied using the simulation technique of dissipative particle dynamics. A variety of ordered mesostructures have been observed and the simulated phase diagrams show obvious symmetries for the (Ax)4(By)4 films and asymmetries for the (AxBy)4 films, besides, it is easier for the (Ax)4(By)4 than for the (AxBy)4 to carry out microphase separation under the same conditions, which has been recognized in bulk and can be ascribed to the structural difference between the two types of star copolymers. There are some correspondences between the mesostructures formed in the film and those formed in bulk at the same composition fraction. Decreasing the thickness of film and strengthening the A-B repulsion both help the mesostructures enhance the degree of order. Composition fraction dependences of the mean-square radius of gyration in the two types of star copolymer films are almost contrary, which can be attributed to the differences in their respective structures.These findings can provide a guide to designing novel microstructures involving star-diblock copolymers via geometrical confinement.
Chinese abstract